Pathways to Cancer
- Pathways, Overview
The 3-D animations in this Pathway to Cancer section focuses on a single pathway that regulates growth and protein production.
- Pathways, At the cell surface
In this section learn that a signaling pathway begins with the arrival of a chemical signal - such as a hormone or growth factor - at the cell surface.
- Pathways, Beneath the membrane
In this section learn that the binding of growth factors outside the cell causes receptors ends to intertwine and activate each other, and once active, the modified receptor ends interact with messenger proteins.
- Pathways, A bevy of interactions
In this section learn that receptors activate each other before binding an adaptor molecule and an exchange factor.
- Pathways, To the nucleus
In this section learn that many signaling pathways ultimately pass messages to the nucleus of a cell.
- Pathways, Inside the nucleus
In this section learn that an activated protein is transported into the nucleus through a pore in the nuclear membrane.
- Pathways, Making the protein
In this section learn that in the cytoplasm, the messenger RNA is released from its carrier proteins and binds to a protein assembly complex called a ribosome.
- Pathways, Releasing the protein
In this section learn that newly made proteins leave the endoplasmic reticulum wrapped in a layer of membrane called a vesicle.